域外迷友超强DIY变形金刚3 总领级铁皮终极DIY 还原一切 给您电影般质地：为了越来越好的传达作者的主见大家附上了小编创制经历的原著： Enter Ironhide. This epic leader class figure is one of my favorites by far. Always have been a fan of Ironhide, and Hasro's done him just with this 9½ inch Leader Class figure from the Dark of the Moon movie. This is a non-transforming representation of the character. I went to town on this guy. Here's a list of the upgrades and modifications : - Added articulated custom hands, which pivot and combine parts from the existing fists (brass knuckles!) - 2 scratch built custom cannons attached to the backs of his forearms, each has 2 LEDs, his left cannon lights up red, his right cannon lights up blue - repositioned chest truck wheels - rebuilt head (added larger "wings" on sides) - Swapped in bright BLUE LED in his eyes - Head is now on a ball joint - Face shield/mouth plate pops on using a small, yet powerful rare earth magnet - Removed some excess plastic from inside the knees allowing Ironhide to stand up straighter and taller - Custom license plate - Completely custom built back using all the hacked off parts un-needed - Working LEDs in front headlights and orange turn signals - Ankles replaced with ball joints - Feet rebuilt, added toes and heels
Day4-5 词汇储存 & 背景知识互补
We mentioned last time that in the first conflict between particle and wave, the particle theory led by Newton beat the wave theory and gained the wide acknowledgment in physics academia.
1）.the leaning tower of Pisa 比萨斜塔
2）.the moons of Jupiter 木星的卫星
——（ 拓展 ：水星(MercuryState of Qatar, 水星(维纳斯卡塔尔, 地球(Earth卡塔尔国, 计都星(Mars卡塔尔(قطر, 土星(JupiterState of Qatar, Saturn(SaturnState of Qatar, 天王星(Uranus卡塔尔(قطر,海王星 (Neptune卡塔尔国 及 冥王星(Pluto卡塔尔。 要把那么些行星序记下，我们可经过以下句子：“My Very Educated Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets”）
3）.waves： ultraviolet（紫外线）, X rays, and gamma rays —— 红外线（Infrared）、radar（雷达）
4）.Alpha Centaur （天琴座阿尔法星，人马座中的聚星，其四个组成都部队分是星座中最亮的局地，距地球4.4光年）
5）the special theory of relativity 狭义相对论.......（If one neglects gravitational effects, as Einstein and Poincare did in 壹玖零伍, one has what is called ）
6）the general theory of relativity 广义...........
7）geodesiche（ nearest thing to a straight path in a curved space）——
1）air resistance 空气阻力
2）a light-second（a more convenient, new unit of length）
form an object called space-time（ a four-dimensional space）
latitude and longitude 经纬度
4）the twins paradox：双胎谬论
a pair of twins
The first twin
5）a lead weight 镇纸
全生：diagram 图表（figure、chart、plot、graphic）、 galaxy 、deflection、velocity
After a century passed, Newton’s system owned so high a social status that it dazzled people’s eyes. And what he advocated - the notion that light is a kind of particles was so firmly believed that people almost forgot about its former opponent.
His measurements of the variations in the distance of the earth from Jupiter were, however, not very accurate, and so his value for the speed of light was 140,000 miles per second, compared to the modern value of 186,000 miles per second.
magnitude; quantity; number represented by a figure, symbol, or the like:
the value of an angle; the value ofx; the value of a sum.
a point in the range of a function; a point in the range corresponding to a given point in the domain of a function:
The value of x 2 at 2 is 4.
Aristotle believed in a preferred state of rest,
Maxwell’s theory predicted that radio or light waves should travel at a certain fixed speed.
Ping-Pong ball on the trainbounces straight up and down
verb (used without object), bounced, bouncing.
- to spring back from a surface in a lively manner:
The ball bounced off the wall.
- to strike the ground or other surface, and rebound:
The ball bounced once before he caught it.
3.to move or walk in a lively, exuberant, or energetic manner:
She bounced into the room.
- to move along in a lively manner, repeatedly striking the surface below and rebounding:
The box bounced down the stairs.
>Because of the equivalence of energy and mass, the energy which an object has due to its motion will add to its mass.
>As we have seen, Maxwell’s equations predicted that the speed of light should be the same whatever the speed of the source, and this has been confirmed by accurate measurements.
As an object approaches the speed of light
verb (used with object)
- to come near or nearer to:
The cars slowed down as they approached the intersection.
- to come near to in quality, character, time, or condition; to come within range for comparison:
As a poet he hardly approaches Keats.
- to present, offer, or make a proposal or request to:
to approach the president with a suggestion.
The first twin would age faster than the second. Thus, if they met again, one would be older than the other
>An equally remarkable consequence of relativity is the way it has revolutionized our ideas of space and time.
>Einstein made the revolutionary suggestion that gravity is not a force like other forces, but is a consequence of the fact that space-time is not flat, as had been previously assumed: it is curved, or “warped,”
observers who are moving relative to each other will assign different times and positions to the same event
1.to designate; name; specify:
to assign a day for a meeting.
2.to ascribe; attribute; bring forward:
to assign a cause.
However, it is possible to do so during an eclipse of the sun, when the sun’s light is blocked out by the moon.
11）agree on/ to
agree on how far the light traveled (since space is not absolute).
Their measurement had been sheer luck, or a case of knowing the result they wanted to get, not an uncommon occurrence in science.
stubbed his toe on a large stone.
a pulse of light （脉冲波）or radio waves / impulse
An event, in this sense, is something that takes place at a single point in space, at a specified point in time.（specify、specified / specific）
that identical clocks carried by different observers would not necessarily agree.
- similar or alike in every way:
The two cars are identical except for their license plates.
- being the very same; selfsame:
This is the identical room we stayed in last year.
- agreeing exactly:
18）using a pair of very accurate clocks mounted at the top and bottom of a water tower.
using a pair of very accurate clocks mounted at the top and bottom of a water tower.
19） paradox 悖论
This is known as the twins paradox, but it is a paradox only if one has the idea of absolute time at the back of one’s mind.
After one millionth of a second the light will have spread out（用spread out 来说light） to form a sphere with a radius of 300 meters
>a solid geometric figure generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter; a round body whose surface is at all points equidistant from the center. Equation: x 2+ y 2+ z 2= r 2.
>the surface of such a figure; a spherical surface.
any rounded body approximately of this form; a globular mass, shell, etc.
The expanding circle of ripples will mark out a cone whose tip is at the place and time at which the stone hit the water。
1、a small wave or undulation, as on water.
2、any similar movement or appearance; a small undulation or wave, as in hair.
The old idea of an essentially unchanging universe that could have existed, and could continue to exist, forever was replaced by the notion of a dynamic, expanding universe that seemed to have begun a finite time ago, and that might end at a finite time in the future.
- a general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something:
a notion of how something should be done.
- an opinion, view, or belief:
That's his notion, not mine.
>3. conception or idea:
his notion of democracy.
- a fanciful or foolish idea; whim:
She had a notion to swim in the winter.
noun, plural velocities.
1.rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed:
a high wind velocity.
2.Mechanics. the time rate of change of position of a body in a specified direction.
3.the rate of speed with which something happens; rapidity of action or reaction.
However, on 13th June 1773, in a Puritan household in Milverton England, a boy was born, whose name was Thomas Young. This leader of the future’s rebel force owned a typical genius-typed way of growth: he began reading all kinds of classics at an age of 2, studying Latin at 6; at the age of 14 he wrote an autobiography in Latin; by the age of 16, he could speak 10 languages. His talent in language later made him capable of interpreting many mysterious Egyptian hieroglyphs on the Tarot. But for our story, more importantly, Young was interested in natural science, too. He learned Newton’s Principia Mathematica and Lavoisier’s Traite Elementaire de Chimie, and these grand works laid the foundation for his future achievement.
At the age of 19, with the impact from his uncle, Young made up his mind to learn medical science in London. Later, he went to Edinburgh University and University of Gottingen. He finalized his learning back in Emanuel College in Cambridge University. At the time when he was still a student, Young studied the structure of human eyes and he began to get contact with some fundamental questions in optics, and finally that formed the idea that light was a wave. Young’s this idea originated from the “interference” phenomenon.
1).Aristotle believed in a preferred state of rest, which any body would take up if it were not driven by some force Or impulse / he thought that the earth was at rest
2) One could equally well say that body A was at rest and body B was moving at constant speed
3) with respect to body A
4)because it did not accord with his idea of an absolute God
find a theory of gravity that was consistent with special relativity
The reason for that particular number is that it corresponds to the historical definition of the meter
—— 开展收拾 （和....一致
5）In effect, the meter is defined to be the distance traveled by light in 0.000000003335640952 second, as measured by a cesium clock.
6）When the famous Dr. Johnson was told of Berkeley’s opinion, he cried, “I refute it thus!”
7）there is no way to tell whether it is the train or the earth that is moving
8）one can say that a point in a room is seven feet from one wall, three feet from another, and five feet above the floor.
9）After one millionth of a second the light will have spread out（用spread out 来说light） to form a sphere with a radius of 300 meters
10）Time was completely separate from and independent of space（区别？）
11）Einstein is usually given the credit for the new theory, but Poincare is remembered by having his name attached to an important part of it.
13）An event, in this sense, is something that takes place at a single point in space, at a specified point in time
14）In effect, the meter is defined to be the distance traveled by light in 0.000000003335640952 second, as measured by a cesium clock.
15）Equally, we can use a more convenient, new unit of length called a light-second.
16）It follo ws that.....简单的说、由此得出
In the theory of relativity, we now define distance in terms of time and the speed of light, so it follows automatically that every observer will measure light to have the same speed
17）Again, the choice of coordinates is arbitrary; one can use any three well-defined spatial coordinates and any measure of time.
As we know, the common substances are accumulative: a drop of water adding another drop makes two drops instead of vanishing together. But that’s not the case of wave. An array of common wave has its peaks and troughs. Then when two arrays meet, the peak will be twice as high as before if two peaks meet while the tough will be twice as low as before if two troughs meet. However, what if a peak of one wave meets a trough of another?
It is said that Galileo demonstrated that Aristotle’s belief was false by dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa. The story is almost certainly untrue, but Galileo did do something equivalent: he rolled balls of different weights down a smooth slope.
The answer is they will cancel out each other. If two waves meet under such a circumstance (it’s called “reverse phase” in physics), the overlap will be just flat, no peak nor trough. It’s just like someone is pulling you to the left, while another man is pulling with the same force towards the right, and as a result, you main still.
strengthening or canceling?